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Updated 2019-03-21 19:18
Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo
The Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in North Kivu and Ituri provinces has recently shown an increase in the number of cases reported by week, after many weeks of overall decline (Figure 1). This rise is not unexpected and, in part, likely a result of the increased security challenges, including the recent direct attacks on treatment centers, and pockets of community mistrust, which slowed some response activities in affected areas for a few days.
Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo
The public health response to the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak continues to make gains. During the last 21 days (20 February – 12 March 2019), no new cases have been detected in 10 of the 20 health zones that have been affected during the outbreak (Figure 1). There has also been fewer new cases observed over the past five weeks compared to January 2019 and earlier in the outbreak (Figure 2).
Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo
The Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is continuing with moderate intensity. Katwa and Butembo remain the major health zones of concern, while small clusters continue simultaneously in some geographically dispersed locations. During the last 21 days (13 February – 5 March 2019), 76 new confirmed and probable cases have been reported from 31 health areas within nine health zones (Figure 1), including: Katwa (44), Butembo (17), Mandima (6), Masereka (3), Kalunguta (2), Beni (1), Vuhovi (1), Kyondo (1), and Rwampara (1). The emerging cluster in Mandima health zone is occurring in a previously unaffected village, with five of the recent cases epidemiologically linked and the sixth case likely exposed in Butembo; nonetheless, there remains a high risk of further spread. Similarly, recent cases (two confirmed and one probable) in Masereka stem from a Butembo chain of transmission. These events highlight the importance for response teams to remain active across all areas, including those with lower case incidence, to rapidly detect new cases and prevent onward transmission.
Carbapenem-resistant <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i> infection – Mexico
On 12 February 2019, the Pan American Health Organization / World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO) received a report regarding surgical site infections caused by antibiotic-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa after invasive procedures performed in Tijuana, Mexico.
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) – Oman
Between 12 and 18 February 2019, the National IHR Focal Point of Oman reported eight additional cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection. Four cases were reported from South Sharquia governorate, and four cases were reported from North Batinah governorate where a MERS-CoV cluster was recently identified. Details of the additional eight cases can be found in the attached excel sheet.
Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo
The Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is continuing with moderate intensity. Katwa and Butembo remain the major health zones of concern, while simultaneously, small clusters continue to occur in various geographically dispersed locations. During the last 21 days (6 – 26 February 2019), 77 new cases have been reported from 33 health areas within nine health zones (Figure 1), including: Katwa (45), Butembo (19), Vuhovi (4), Kyondo (3), Kalunguta (2), Oicha (1), Beni (1), Mandima (1), and Rwampara (1).
Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 – Indonesia
On 12 February, a circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 (cVDPV1) has been confirmed in Papua province, Indonesia. Two genetically-linked VDPV1 viruses were isolated from a child with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) with onset of paralysis on 27 November 2018 and in a healthy community contact, a child whose stool sample was collected on 24 January 2019. The location of this healthy child, with the VDPV isolation, is in a remote village, approximately 3–4 km away from the AFP case with onset of paralysis on 27 November 2018. Even though this province shares a border with Papua New Guinea, this outbreak is not linked to the cVDPV1 outbreak currently affecting its neighbouring country.
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) – The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
On 6 February 2019, the National IHR Focal Point of The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia notified WHO of an ongoing outbreak of MERS-CoV infection in Wadi Aldwasir city and one of its hospitals (referred to as Hospital A). Between 29 January and 13 February 2019, 39 cases of MERS-CoV infection, including four deaths, were reported. At the time of writing, this outbreak remains ongoing. Human-to-human transmission has occurred between the index patient and health care workers, patients in the emergency department and intensive care unit (ICU) of Hospital A, and from patients to household contacts. As of 13 February, nine health care workers have been infected. Descriptions of the outbreak are based on information WHO has received as of 13 February 2019; further updates will be provided as they become available.
Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo
The Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is continuing with moderate intensity. Katwa and Butembo remain the major health zones of concern, while simultaneously, small clusters continue to occur in various geographically dispersed locations. During the last 21 days (30 January – 19 February 2019), 79 new cases have been reported from 40 health areas within 12 health zones (Figure 1), including: Katwa (46), Butembo (15), Kyondo (4), Vuhovi (4), Kalunguta (2), Oicha (2), Biena (1), Mabalako (1), Manguredjipa (1), Masereka (1), Mutwanga (1), and Rwampara (1).
Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 – Papua New Guinea
On 26 June 2018, an outbreak of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 (cVDPV1) was declared in Papua New Guinea following laboratory confirmation of cVDPV1 isolation in two healthy community contacts of the index case. Since the declaration, a total of 26 confirmed cVDPV1 cases have been reported in the following nine provinces: Eastern Highlands (six), Enga (five), East Sepik (four), Madang (three), Morobe (three), Jiwaka (two), Gulf (one), Southern Highlands (one), and National Capital District (NCD) (one). The last laboratory-confirmed case reported having experienced the onset of paralysis in late October 2018. Environmental surveillance continues on a bimonthly basis in Port Moresby and Lae to complement active acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) case search efforts.
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) – Saudi Arabia
From 1 January through 31 January 2019, the International Health Regulations (IHR) National Focal Point of Saudi Arabia reported fourteen additional cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection, including three deaths.
Lassa Fever – Nigeria
From 1 January through 10 February 2019, 327 cases of Lassa fever (324 confirmed cases and three probable cases) with 72 deaths (case fatality ratio = 22%) have been reported across 20 states and the Federal Capital Territory, with the majority of cases being reported from Edo (108) and Ondo (103) States.
Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo
Despite slightly fewer cases reported during the past week (Figure 1), current epidemiological indicators highlight that the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is continuing with moderate intensity. Katwa and Butembo remain the major health zones of concern, while simultaneously, small clusters continue to occur in various geographically dispersed regions. During the last 21 days (23 January – 12 February 2019), 97 new cases have been reported from 13 health zones (Figure 2), including: Katwa (59), Butembo (12), Beni (7), Kyondo (4), Oicha (4), Vuhovi (3), Biena (2), Kalunguta (2), Komanda (1), Manguredjipa (1), Mabalako (1), Masereka (1), and Mutwanga (1). The recent case reported in the Komanda health zone was a resident of Katwa who was exposed to the virus, and subsequently travelled to both Bunia and Komanda. This case comes one month after the last reported case in Ituri Province; underscoring the high risks of reintroduction to previously affected areas, as well as the potential for spread to new ones.
Yellow fever – Brazil
Brazil is currently in the seasonal period for yellow fever, which occurs from December through May. The expansion of the historical area of yellow fever transmission to areas in the south-east of the country in areas along the Atlantic coast previously considered risk-free led to two waves of transmission (Figure 1). One during the 2016–2017 seasonal period, with 778 human cases, including 262 deaths, and another during the 2017–2018 seasonal period, with 1376 human cases, including 483 deaths.
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) – Oman
From 27 January and 31 January 2019, the International Health Regulations (IHR) National Focal Point of Oman reported five cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection.
Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo
The Ebola virus disease (EVD) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo continues with relatively high numbers of cases reported in recent weeks (Figure 1), and some encouraging signs. Katwa and Butembo health zones remain the epicentres of the outbreak, reporting 71% of cases in the last three weeks, with smaller clusters continuing to occur concurrently across a geographically dispersed area.
Dengue fever – Jamaica
On 3 January 2019, the International Health Regulations (IHR) National Focal Point of Jamaica notified WHO of an increase in dengue cases in Jamaica.
Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo
The Ministry of Health (MoH), WHO and partners continue to respond to an outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD), despite persistent challenges around security and community mistrust impacting response measures.
Gonococcal infection – United Kingdom
On 7 January 2019, the International Health Regulations (IHR) National Focal Point for the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland notified WHO about two cases of extensive drug resistant (XDR) Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection diagnosed in the United Kingdom.
Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 – Mozambique
On 17 January 2019, two genetically-linked circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) isolates were reported from Molumbo district, Zambezia province, Mozambique. The first one, was from an acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) case with onset of paralysis on 21 October 2018, a six-year old girl with no history of vaccination, and the second isolate was from a community contact of the first case, a child aged one-year old.
Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo
The Ministry of Health (MoH), WHO and partners have continued to face challenges in the containment and control of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The number of reported cases increased during recent weeks, most notably from the Katwa health zone where response teams have faced pockets of community mistrust. The outbreak has also extended southwards to Kayina health zone, a high security risk area. Teams are working actively to build community trust and scale up response activities around these new clusters.
Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome – Argentine Republic
On 19 December 2018, the Argentinian Ministry of Health and Social Development issued an epidemiological alert regarding an increase in cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in Epuyén, Chubut Province. Between 28 October 2018 – 20 January of 2019, a total of 29 laboratory-confirmed cases of HPS, including 11 deaths have been reported in Epuyén, Chubut Province. Epuyén has a population of approximately 2 000 persons, and Chubut Province is located in Patagonia in southern Argentina.
Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo
The Ministry of Health (MoH), WHO and partners continue to respond to the ongoing Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in one of the most complex settings possible. A high number of cases are still being reported, most notably from the metropolitan areas of Katwa Health Zone during the past week. The decline in case incidence has continued in Beni; a positive indication of how effective the response can be despite multiple challenges.
Measles – Madagascar
WHO is supporting the Ministry of Public Health of Madagascar to respond to an unusually large measles outbreak.
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) – Saudi Arabia
From 1 December 2018 through 31 December 2018, the International Health Regulations (IHR) National Focal Point of Saudi Arabia reported five additional cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection.
Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo
WHO and partners continue to respond to the ongoing Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in one of the most complex settings possible.
Yellow fever – Nigeria
On 22 November 2018, the World Health Organization was informed of a cluster of suspected Yellow fever (YF) cases and deaths in Edo State, Nigeria.
Poliomyelitis - Democratic Republic of the Congo
As of October 2018, genetically-linked circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) isolates were detected in two cases from Haut-Katanga province (Mufunga-Sampwe district) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The first case was a 11-year old child who experienced onset of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) on 6 October. The second case was a 29-month old child who experienced onset of symptoms on 7 October, and is a known contact of the first case. The isolated viruses are a new emergence and unrelated to previously-detected cVDPV2s affecting the country. This is the fourth distinct outbreak of cVDPV2 detected in the country since June 2017. In total, 42 cVDPV2 cases have now been confirmed since detection of the first outbreak in June 2017, 20 cases of which were detected in 2018.
Hantavirus disease – Republic of Panama
The Panama Ministry of Health has reported an increase in cases of hantavirus infection in Los Santos Province, Republic of Panama, to the Pan American Health Organization / World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO). Between 1 January and 22 December 2018, a total of 103 confirmed cases of hantavirus have been reported at the national level, 99 of which were reported in Los Santos Province. In Los Santos Province, 51 cases were classified as hantavirus fever (HF) without pulmonary syndrome and 48 cases were classified as hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), including four deaths.
Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo
The response by WHO and partners to the ongoing Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak continues despite disruptions to key services due to security incidents taking place in Beni and Butembo during the recent election on 30 December 2018. In order to ensure the safety of all staff deployed, as a precautionary measure, operations were scaled back for a few hours on election day. All normal operations have been fully restored as of 1 January 2019. After an intensification of field activities in early December, notable improvements can be observed in many areas, notably a decrease in cases in Beni. However, hard-earned progress could still be lost to rebound levels of transmission resulting from prolonged periods of insecurity hampering containment efforts.
Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo
The Ministry of Health (MoH), WHO and partners continue to respond to the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) – Saudi Arabia
From 31 October through 30 November 2018, the International Health Regulations (IHR 2005) National Focal Point of Saudi Arabia reported eight additional cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection, including two deaths. Details of these cases can be found in a separate document (see link below).
Typhoid fever – Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Pakistan Health Authorities have reported an ongoing outbreak of extensively drug resistant (XDR) typhoid fever that began in the Hyderabad district of Sindh province in November 2016. An increasing trend of typhoid fever cases caused by antimicrobial resistant (AMR) strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (or S. Typhi) poses a notable public health concern. In May 2018, the case definitions for non-resistant, multi-drug resistant (MDR) and XDR typhoid fever were formally agreed by the Regional Disease Surveillance and Response Unit (RDSRU) in Karachi, following a review by an expert group of epidemiologists, clinicians and microbiologists from Pakistan. All typhoid fever cases reported from 2016 to 2018 were reviewed and classified according to these case definitions (see Table 1).
Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo
Responding to the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo continues to be a complex challenge.
Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo
Responding to the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo continues to be a complex challenge.
Yellow Fever – Kingdom of the Netherlands
On 22 November 2018, the World Health Organization (WHO) was informed by Dutch authorities of a laboratory-confirmed case of yellow fever. The case-patient is a 26 year-old male who visited Gambia from 3 through 17 November 2018, with a three day trip to Senegal from 12 through 14 November. He had no history of vaccination for yellow fever prior to the trip. On 18 November 2018, the case-patient developed symptoms including fever, nausea and vomiting. On19 November 2018 he was hospitalized with symptoms of acute liver failure and he is still in hospital as of 10 December.
Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo
The Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo is occurring in an unforgiving context. Non-engagement from communities and conflict continue to hamper response activities in some affected areas. Moreover, poor infection prevention and control (IPC) practices across numerous private and public health centers remain a major source of amplification of the outbreak and risk to health and other frontline workers.
Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo
Responding to the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in north-eastern parts of the Democratic Republic of the Congo continues to be a multifaceted challenge. By utilising proven public health measures (contact tracing, engaging communities) as well as new tools at hand (vaccine and therapeutics), WHO remains confident the outbreak can be contained and brought to an end.
Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo
As the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak approaches five months since declaration, responding to the outbreak continues to be a challenge; nevertheless, in collaboration with the Ministry of Health (MoH) and partners, WHO remains focused on the ongoing containment efforts to end the outbreak.
Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo
Containing the ongoing Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo is a complex and challenging task but WHO remains confident that the outbreak can be successfully contained in collaboration with the Ministry of Health (MoH) and partners.
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) – Saudi Arabia
From 16 through 30 October 2018, the International Health Regulations (IHR 2005) National Focal Point of Saudi Arabia reported four additional cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection, including one death.
Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo
New measures to overcome obstacles in responding to the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo are having a positive impact. The Ministry of Health (MoH), WHO and partners continue to be confident that, despite challenges, the outbreak can be contained.
Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo
As the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak enters the fourth month since declaration, and case numbers surpass 300, substantial progress has been achieved in all aspects of the response.
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) – Saudi Arabia
From 17 September through 15 October 2018, the International Health Regulations (IHR 2005) National Focal Point of Saudi Arabia reported eight additional cases of MERS-CoV infection, including three deaths. Of the eight cases reported, three were hospital contacts from one hospital in Dammam and two were household contacts in Riyadh. Details of these cases can be found in a separate document (see link below).
Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo
The increase over the past four weeks in confirmed case incidence (Figure 1), most notably in the city of Beni and communities around Butembo, is concerning.
Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 – Niger
From July through September 2018, six cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) were reported from Niger, genetically linked to a cVDPV2 case in Jigawa and Katsina States, Nigeria. The virus was isolated from children with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) from Zinder region, located in the south of Niger and on the border with Nigeria, with dates of onset of paralysis ranging from 18 July through 16 September 2018. This outbreak has also affected Jigawa, Katsina, Yobe, Gombe, and Borno states in Nigeria, with 17 cases reported since April 2018.
Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo
Security incidents over the past week, ranging from clashes between rebel and government forces resulting in civilian deaths to response vehicles being pelted with stones, continued to cause community distress and severely impede response activities for the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo
The response to the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo has seen significant improvements over the past weeks, including strong performances by field teams conducting vaccinations, and improved community engagement and risk communication in priority areas. However, as new cases continue to emerge from Beni and appear closer to security ‘red zones’, it is clear that risks remain and that strong response measures need to be prioritized. The virus’ spread is partly due to security conditions that severely impact frontline and health workers, at times forcing the suspension of response activities and increasing the risk that the virus may spread to neighbouring provinces and countries. The MoH, WHO and partners continue to rapidly adapt to these challenging circumstances, scaling up all pillars of the response: surveillance, contact tracing, community engagement, laboratory testing, infection prevention and control, safe and dignified burials, vaccination, and therapeutics.
Chikungunya – Sudan
On 31 May 2018, the State Ministry of Health (SMOH) of the Red Sea State in Sudan reported four suspected cases of chikungunya fever from Swakin locality, in Red Sea State. Among the signs and symptoms were sudden onset of fever, headache, joint pain and swelling, muscle pain and/or inability to walk.
Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo
The response to the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo is becoming increasingly undermined by security challenges in at-risk areas, particularly Beni. These incidents severely impact both civilians and frontline workers, forcing suspension of EVD response activities and increasing the risk that the virus will continue to spread. WHO continues to distinguish between the incidents of conflict between rebel and government forces, and pockets of community push-back on the response. A recent increase in the incidence of new cases (Figure 1) is the result of the multitude of challenges faced by response teams. This also reflects improved active surveillance and reporting from the community.
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